- Systemic symptoms such as fever and fatigue are often predominant compared to an acute exacerbation where cough, sputum and dyspnea appear first6.
- People older than 60 years with comorbidity like COPD are more susceptibility to contract SARS-CoV-21.
- According to a meta analysis of 3403 cases, COPD is one of the most prevalent underlying diseases among hospitalized COVID-19 patients3.
- Higher mortality rates were observed when COPD patients developing COVID-191,2.
- Worse clinical outcomes are seen in patients who have preexisting comorbidities like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)1,2,4.
- In a study of 1590 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in China, 62,5% were considered severe cases2 and 50% were either being admitted to the intensive care unit, needing invasive ventilation or dead2.
- A significantly higher risk of exacerbation of COVID-19 infection is seen in patients with COPD as a comorbidity4.
- Patients with COPD have a 5.9% higher risk of progression in their disease than patients without this comorbidity4.
- Case-fatality is estimated at 1-2% of all cases. Nearly all cases resulting in death were patients with significant underlying chronic diseases including COPD and cardiovascular diseases5.
Ji HL., et al present a review to summarize the existence of elevated plasminogen in patients with comorbidities infected by COVID-19. Guan WJ., et al present an Early View to analyze patients with comorbidities et their risk of serious adverse outcomes. This study included 1590 laboratory-confirmed hospitalized patients. Emami A., et al have written a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of underlying disease with confirmed and hospitalized COVID-19 patients. 3403 cases have been used for the analysis. Wang B., et al present a meta-analysis to explore if the presence of certain comorbidities increases the risk of developing COVID-19 infection. 1558 cases were included in 6 different studies. Leung JM., et al present a Research letter to determine if patients with COPD have increased expression of ACE-2 which is the cellular entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Jie Z., et al present a medical instruction for management and prevention of COPD during the COVID-19 epidemic period.
- Ji HL., Zhao R., Matalon S., et al. (March 27, 2020). Elevated Plasmin(ogen) as a Common Risk Factor for Covid-19 Susceptibility. Physiological Reviews, American Physiological Society. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00013.2020
- Guan WJ., Liang WH., Zhao Y., et al. (March 26, 2020). Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with Covid-19 in China: A Nationwide Analysis. European Respiratory Journal. Doi: 1183/13993003.00547-2020
- Emami A., Javanmardi F., Pirbonyeh N., et al. (March 24, 2020). Prevalence of Underlying Diseases in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Archive of Academics Emergency Medicine. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7096724/
- Wang B., Li R., Lu Z., et al. (April 8, 2020). Does comorbidity increase the risk of patients with COVID-19: evidence from meta-analysis. Impact Journal, Aging US. https://paperchase-aging.s3-us-west-1.amazonaws.com/pdf/qv4macXM3ESBdrCdp.pdf
- Leung JM., Yang CX., Tam A., et al. (April 8, 2020). ACE-2 Expression in the Small Airway Epithelia of Smokers and COPD Patients: Implications for COVID-19. European Respiratory journal. DOI:1183/13993003.00688-2020
- Jie Z., Hu HH., Zhi Z., et al. (March 10, 2020). Medical management and prevention instruction of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic. DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.cn112147-20200227-00201