Preventive Medicine

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Preventive Medicine

Preventing the disease

24  articles in this collection
Written by Mathias Castonguay, Angie Shen, Laurie-Anne Duquette, Noémie Desgagnés, 

The Effect of Certain Public Health Measures

  Suppression policies (population-wide social distancing, home isolation of cases and school and university closure): They should be applied until a vaccine is available to avoid a peak epidemic later. 1 According to current data and data on influenza outbreaks, school closures would have a minimal effect on the transmission of the virus given its high transmissibility and apparent […]

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04/05/2020

Is Quarantine Effective?

Home quarantine is an effective measure in the prevention of transmission and mortality during the pandemic. Modelling studies have found that quarantine could potentially reduce disease transmission by 44% to 81%, and mortality by 31% to 63%. Early implementation of quarantine increases the effectiveness of the measure. Measures must be taken to improve early detection […]

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04/09/2020

Health Literacy

Almost half of adults in Europe have reported having problems with health literacy and not having enough competencies to take care of their health and that of others. It is difficult to enhance health literacy because the COVID-19 pandemic has emerged rapidly and immediate actions are required by governments and citizens. Irrational behaviors in non-compliance with COVID-19 policies might be […]

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05/27/2020

Malnutrition in elderly patients

52,7 % of patients over 65 years old in this study were malnourished and 27,5%were at risk of malnutrition. Main probable reasons that explain malnutrition are: The protein that made up muscles was consumed by the acute inflammatory response to the infection; Comorbidity with diabetes mellitus; Gastro-intestinal symptoms caused by SARS-CoV-2 exacerbated malnutrition; Poor appetite of patients, which […]

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05/27/2020

Vaccine Development Landscape

This list shows candidate vaccines and their research stage on May 20th, 2020.  Candidate vaccines in clinical evaluation: 9 Vaccine  Platform Developer/ Location Stage Ad5-nCoV Non- Replicating Viral Vector CanSinoBiological Inc./ Beijing Institute of Biotechnology (China) Phase II ChiCTR2000031781  Phase I ChiCTR2000030906  mRNA-1273 RNA Moderna/NIAID (U.S.) Phase 2 (IND accepted) Phase 1 NCT04283461 ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 […]

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04/26/2020

Transmission by Presymptomatic and Asymptomatic Patients

There is evidence that supports that transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can occur before a patient becomes symptomatic. The duration of transmissibility while patients are presymptomatic has not been clearly established. The possibility of presymptomatic transmission reinforces the importance of social distancing measures and suggests that symptom-based control strategies are insufficient. If control measures are not enforced, […]

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04/06/2020

Ethnic Minority

In the United States, African-American communities tend to have higher poverty rates, limited health care access and higher rates of jobs in service industries making it more difficult to work from home, with a subsequent increased exposure risk1 Infection rate is more than 3 times higher in predominantly African-American counties and death rate is 6-fold […]

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05/17/2020

Effects of Smoking

Key Points Smokers are more susceptible to the most recent species of Coronavirus infections3,5. History of smoking may also impact disease progression1,3. Smokers were 1.4 times more prone to develop severe symptoms1. They also had 2.4 times greater likelihood to be admitted to the ICU,  need mechanical ventilation or die1. Current  smokers have a significantly higher ACE-2 gene expression levels than non-smokers2,5,6. Suggesting an increased risk […]

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03/29/2020

Awareness, Attitudes, and Actions of the Public Regarding the Pandemic

Many vulnerable American adults with comorbidities lack knowledge about the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; nearly one in 3 adults could not identify the symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection or the adequate ways to prevent it. Many psychosocial health determinants seem to be responsible for noted disparities concerning knowledge and response towards the pandemic : Age Race/ethnicity Socioeconomic status […]

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04/22/2020

Rationale Behind Coronaviruses’ Vaccines

What we know about SARS-CoV: Caused an outbreak in 2002; Immune responses are mediated by both humoral and cellular immunity; S protein is responsible for 3 important mechanisms:  attachment of the virus by binding to the ACE2; entry in the host cells and membrane fusion; allowing release of the viral RNA. This makes S protein the […]

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04/06/2020

Controlling Outbreaks by Isolation of Cases and Contacts

Isolation of cases and highly effective contact tracing can contribute to reduce the size of an outbreak and help control it over longer period of time. Isolation of cases and contact tracing can help control an outbreak within 3 months in most scenarios tested. When looking at the most plausible outbreak scenarios, these two strategies […]

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03/28/2020

Insights About Reinfection and Immunization

How long does the immunity last after infections with coronaviruses? Is it possible to get reinfected?  As of now, one of the hospital discharge criterias for COVID-19 infection is that with at least a one-day interval, two repetitive RT-PCR tests done on throat swabs have turned up negative. This method of testing is currently questioned […]

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05/02/2020

Do Lung Cancer Patients Need Special Screening Strategy?

Regarding baseline risk of infection and death: Smoking history, is correlated with a higher incidence of respiratory infections and a 2.4 times higher risk of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation or death from COVID-19 infection. This may be due to structural and immunologic-induced modifications from tobacco; Alteration in the lung architecture from tumor mechanical obstruction (or […]

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04/10/2020

Effective Measures to Prevent Transmission in the Oncology Department?

Mandatory measures have been carried out at the National Cancer Center in China: Multiple on-site temperature tests were be performed (entrances of hospital, outpatient clinic, wards); Online appointments were offered. If not doable, essential personal protective measures were implemented (wearing mask, bringing disinfectant); For patients preparing to be admitted, symptoms that are potentially associated with […]

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04/07/2020

Decontamination Strategies for PPE Shortage

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) do not recommend that filtering facepiece respirators (FFR) be decontaminated and then reused as standard care. In case of PPE shortage, the CDC has identified 3 effective decontamination methods based on their ability to inactivate pathogens and their effect on FFR Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVIG): Nebraska medicine […]

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04/12/2020

Aerosol and Surface Stability in Different Environmental Conditions

SARS-CoV-2’s median half-life is : 1 – 1.2 hours in aerosol form; 6 hours on stainless steel; 8 hours on plastic.   SARS-CoV-2 is more stable on smooth surfaces. It is viable up to 4 days on glass and paper money and up to 7 days on materials such as plastic and stainless steel   […]

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04/14/2020

Can Rapid IgM-IgG Ab Testing Replace RT-PCR?

Reverse Transcription Polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and serologic testing for IgM-IgG antibodies are the dominant ways that global healthcare authorities are using to test for COVID-19. What is RT-PCR testing?    RT-PCR is currently the main testing method used to detect COVID-19. It consists of, first, reverse transcription of RNA into DNA and then amplifying […]

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04/16/2020

How Immune Response to Previous Coronaviruses Pandemics May Help

Innate Immune Responses: Overall genomic similarity is observed between SARS-CoV2 and the 2 other viruses. Early elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines were found in SARS-CoV2 infection but also in SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV pandemics. This suggests a potential similar cytokine storm-mediated disease. Type 1 interferon response is suppressed by both SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV viruses during infection by […]

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04/12/2020

Transmission in Long-Term Care Facilities

Outbreaks of COVID-19 in long-term care facilities can have devastating effects on their residents. Strategies for facilities to prevent and/or control outbreaks include : Restricted access for visitors. Screening healthcare professionnels for symptoms. Social distancing measures within the facility. Contingency plans for acquiring protective equipment Staff training on protective equipment protocol use and disinfection methods. […]

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04/04/2020

What Is the Efficacy of Masks in Preventing Transmission?

Aerosol is a potential mode of transmission from asymptomatic individuals. Surgical masks could reduce the emission of virus particles into the environment in droplets and aerosols. Therefore, they have the potential to reduce onward transmission if worn by symptomatic individuals. Only a minority (35%) of infected participants shed detectable virus in droplets or aerosols, and […]

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04/10/2020

Special precautions in operative and endodontic dentistry

Pre-procedural mouth rinse is an effective method to reduce the viral loads in oral fluid. Oxidative agents such as hydrogen peroxide are more effective than chlorhexidine. Dentists should minimize AGPs (Aerosol Generating Procedures). If AGPs must be performed, additional precautions should be taken: Rubber dam isolation 4-handed technique with the use of low and high-volume […]

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04/05/2020

Special Precautions in Dental Emergency

Patient screening is critical: epidemiological risk factors and clinical symptoms (fever and respiratory tract symptoms) should be asked. Measuring the temperature with contact-free forehead thermometer is recommended. Standard protective measures (universal precautions) are not effective enough to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Special precautionary measures should also be taken. Level 2 PPE is required for […]

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04/05/2020

Viral RNA in Fecal Samples

Fecal samples for SARS-CoV-2 RNA remained positive for around 11,2 days after negative respiratory tract samples for SARS-CoV-2 RNA.  Precautions should be installed as fecal-oral transmission remains possible, even after a clearance in the respiratory tract is proven.  Compared to a respiratory tract sample, a fecal sample can take longer to turn positive. Testing of […]

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03/27/2020

The Use of Face Masks during Pandemics

The consistent recommendation is that symptomatic individuals and health-care workers should use face masks. Face mask distribution should prioritize frontline health-care workers and vulnerable individuals (older than 65 years old and/or with health conditions) Reasons discouraging the widespread use of face masks in communities : Preserving supplies for professional health-care workers Face masks provide no effective […]

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03/29/2020